The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body. It allows a wide range of movements to the hands such as forward flexion, abduction, external rotation, internal rotation, adduction, and 360-degree circumduction. This however makes it the most insecure joint of the body as per the bone structure, but the support of ligaments, muscles and tendons gives it the required stability. Three bones, namely the bone of the upper arm (humerus), the shoulder blade (scapula), and the collar bone (clavicle) make up the shoulder joint.
The half-spherical head of the humerus forms a part of the shoulder joint.
The scapula is a flat triangular bone that can move freely and is suspended by muscles. It serves as the site for most of the muscles attachment, which plays an important role in stabilizing the joint. It has three bony protuberances called acromion, spine, and coracoid process. The acromion and coracoid processes serve as places for attachment of ligaments and tendons.
An irregular comma shaped shallow cavity in the scapula is called the glenoid cavity. The half-spherical head of the humerus fits into the glenoid cavity. A very small part of the head of the humerus makes contact with the glenoid cavity, thereby making it unstable. The extra stability is provided by the glenoid labrum, which is a ring of fibrous cartilage that surrounds the glenoid cavity and increases its depth and surface area to provide a better fit for the half-spherical head of the long arm bone.
The clavicle is an S-shaped collarbone. Most of the nerves pass from the neck to the arm, just below it and through the armpit. Nerves carry messages from the brain to the muscles, which move the bone, and also carry information about different sensations of touch, temperature and pain from the arm back to the brain.
Ligaments are thick strands of fibers that connect one bone to another. They connect the collarbone to the shoulder blade at the coracoid process (coracoclavicular ligaments) and at the acromion process (acromioclavicular ligament). Ligaments also connect the acromion process to the coracoid process (coracoacromial ligament). A group of ligaments form a capsule around the shoulder joint, and connect the head of the arm bone to the glenoid cavity of the shoulder blade (glenohumeral ligaments). Glenohumeral ligaments play a very important role in providing stability to the otherwise unstable shoulder joint and preventing dislocation.
Tendons are muscle extensions that join muscle to bone and allow the muscles to control the movement of the bone or joint. Two important groups of tendons in the shoulder joint are:
- Bicep tendons are the two tendons that join the biceps muscles to the shoulder. They are called as long head and short head of biceps.
- Rotator cuff is the group of four tendons that join the head of the humerus to the deeper muscles. It allows for more stability and mobility of the shoulder joint.
The shoulder joint is the most flexible, although a little complex, joint of the body. It allows a wide range of movements to the arms. To allow this free movement, the spherical head of the long bone of the arm fits loosely in the socket of the glenoid cavity of the shoulder bone. The stability and strength is provided by the supporting ligaments and tendons of the joint.
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Houston Shoulder Specialists
Advanced Orthopedics and sports medicine has numerous Board Certified/Eligible physicians who are thoroughly educated in the latest treatment techniques both surgical and conservative. They are well versed in advances in shoulder treatments including arthroscopic rotator cuff and Bankart repairs, shoulder stabilization procedures, total shoulder replacement and reverse shoulder replacement.
Drs Elbaz and Brooks now perform Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) injections for the treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis, and biciptal tendonitis. PRP stimulates a more rapid healing of tendon, ligament, muscle and bone.
Contact us today to Schedule an Appointment or call us at 281-955-2650 to learn more about our Shoulder Treatment options.
1Professional Building II At North Cypress Medical Center
2North Cypress Professional Building At Lakewood Crossing
3North Cypress Professional Building At Towne Lake
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What Our Patients Are Saying
I had been in so much pain with my back for years. It got so bad that I knew I had to do something. I went to Dr Mohr for help. I was so afraid to have spine surgery as I had heard so many horror stories. He and his staff were very informative. I was amazed at the new technology in spinal surgery. December 8, 2016 I had rods and pins put in my back. I am so happy I did now. I am healing really fast and the pain is going away as my body heals. Thank you Dr Mohr for you expertise and sensitive nature. You were understanding about my fear and helped assure me so I could receive the help I needed. You are an excellent Doctor.
I have been a patient of Dr. Cubbage for several years. Each time of go there, he always presents a thorough plan of care. From ordering the most appropriate diagnostic tests to making sure you understand each step of his plan of care. He consistently instills confidence that you are the road to recovery.
Plus his assistant Karen is extremely knowledgeable and very caring!
I would highly recommend Dr. Cubbage if you are having any type of spinal issues. I have seen Dr. Cubbage several times over the last 3 years for lumbar pain and numbness in my left leg. Dr. Cubbage explained my diagnostic results in such a way that it was easy for me to understand. He patiently answered all my questions and explained my options. Fortunately, Dr. Cubbage has been able to manage my pain with conservative treatment but know surgery is inevitable. When that time comes, I would choose no other than Dr. Cubbage! And it’s a plus that he has such a kind and caring staff.
For the first time in many years and many knee operations on one leg I am without any knee pain. This is a result of a procedure performed by Dr. Patel.
I made an appointment to see Dr. Patel on the recommendation of Dr. Tanous following knee replacement and several months of continued pain. Dr. Patel explained the procedure to me and explained how we would proceed. The first procedure was to determine if I would be a good candidate for the second procedure. After the first procedure my pain was anywhere from 0 and 5. Dr. Patel explained to me at follow-up that I was not a good candidate for the second procedure due to my pain level being above the 0 to 3 level. After talking for a while I said “any relief would be better than the pain I had been having.” With this it was agreed that I would have the second procedure. It has now been 6 days since the procedure and I am without any pain.
I realize this is only a few days of not being able to sleep, with a pillow between my knee or under my leg at night. I know the pain may come back at anytime but until then it has been well worthwhile. I hope it will last 6 months, if not, I will have the procedure again after 6 months.
Thank you Drs. Patel and Tanous.
Outstanding Physicians. I’ve had two surgeries here, one on my foot with Dr. Bacon, and an extensive back surgery with Dr. Cubbage. I’m new to the area and my wife found me these surgeons. I have to say that each surgery I’ve had with these physicians have had excellent results. I was very pleased with my foot surgery and decided to see Dr. Cubbage for my back. Other surgeons I’ve seen regarding my back only gave me a 50/50 success rate. I have to say, the low back surgery with Dr. Cubbage was like a miracle. Right away, I noticed a difference and I’ve continued to improve rapidly. I’m almost eight weeks out and I haven’t felt this good in years. I’d like to thank Dr. Stacy Bacon for my foot surgery and Dr. Matthew Cubbage for my low back surgery. Without these drastic results, I’d not be walking today. Thank you all very much and I highly recommend your services. God bless you all.
Dr. David R. Mack replaced my right hip in June 2009, and my left in October 2010. I am already able to go places and do things on my own again. His excellent staff are very caring and helpful throughout the entire process, including recovery. The out-patient therapy is the best. I am walking very well now and am very pleased to have my life back. Thank you so much Dr. Mack and your great staff! Sincerely,
Dr. Bacon, I can never thank you enough for what you have done for me and for my daughter, Melia. In 2011, on the first anniversary of my surgery, my wife and I walked for two hours on Copacabana beach in Rio. I also completed a four hour nature walk over rough terrain in The Falklands and hiked to del Fin del Terre at the tip of South America. You are truly a great doctor, and I thank God every day for you and for Dr. Fogarty who recommended you for Melia’s surgery.
When I started, I couldn’t put any weight on my right leg and now I can do virtually anything. While I hope to not need future therapy, this is without a doubt the place I will return to in the future.
It has been eight weeks since my partial knee replacement and now I realized just how much I was missing. Having it done has made such a difference to my life. For a start my leg is now straight and my knees actually touch! I have started walking and even plan to ride my bike. The most thrilling part is that I am playing and dancing with my grandchildren again.