Foot & Ankle Pain Treatment Provided by Experienced Orthopedic Surgeons & Non-Operative Physicians in Houston, TX
At Advanced Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine, foot and ankle pain treatment is designed to not only help alleviate discomfort, but also to provide meaningful, long-term improvements in mobility, flexibility and range of motion. Providing residents of Houston, Texas, and other surrounding areas with access to a wide range of diagnostic services and treatments under one roof, Advanced Orthopaedics makes it convenient for patients to obtain all of the medical attention they need – not to mention the compassion they deserve – as they recover from their injuries and return to their active lifestyles.
The foot and ankle anatomy are highly complex, containing more than one hundred muscles, ligaments and tendons, not to mention numerous bones and joints. As a result, comprehensive musculoskeletal treatment is often required to properly address the source of a patient’s pain. At Advanced Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine, we provide many different foot and ankle pain treatment options, including:
- Ankle fracture surgery
- Ankle replacement surgery
- Bunion removal surgery (bunionectomy)
- Bone marrow aspirate concentrate therapy
- Bone spur removal surgery
- Midfoot fusion surgery
- Minimally invasive arthroscopic surgery
- Orthotic devices
- Plantar fascia injections
- Tendon- and ligament-strengthening physical therapy
Patients who turn to Advanced Orthopaedics for foot and ankle pain treatment benefit from our team of highly specialized practitioners, including physical therapists, orthopedic physicians and foot and ankle surgeons. All of our specialists are board-certified, with several holding dual certifications in complementary areas of study. As a result, our Houston orthopedics team has the extensive training and expertise necessary to carefully diagnose and treat a wide range of lower extremity conditions, including arthritis, sesamoiditis, plantar fasciitis, diabetic nerve pain, flexor tendon injuries, Haglund’s deformity and Morton’s neuroma.
To learn more about the foot and ankle pain treatment options available to residents of Houston, TX, at Advanced Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine, contact us today to request an appointment with a foot and ankle specialist.
What is the Normal Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle?
The foot and ankle form complex joints that are involved in movement and providing stability and balance to the body. The foot and ankle consist of 26 bones, 33 joints, and many muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
Bones of the Ankle
The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot and is composed of three bones: the tibia, fibula, and talus. The tibia or shinbone and fibula or calf bone are bones of the lower leg, which articulate with the talus or ankle bone, enabling up and down movement of the foot.
Three bony bumps present on the ends of the tibia and fibula form parts of the ankle joint:
- The medial malleolus, formed by the tibia, is found on the inside of the ankle.
- The posterior malleolus, also formed by the tibia, is found at the back of the ankle.
- The lateral malleolus, formed by the fibula, is found on the outer aspect of the ankle.
Bones of the Feet
The foot acts as a single functional unit, but can be divided into three parts: the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot.
The hindfoot forms the ankle and heel, and is made up of the talus bone and calcaneus or heel bone. The heel bone is the largest bone in the foot.
The midfoot connects the hindfoot to the forefoot, and consists of one navicular bone, one cuboid bone, and three cuneiform bones. The navicular bone is found in front of the heel bone, and the cuneiform and cuboid bones are arranged in front of the navicular bone.
These bones are connected to five metatarsal bones of the forefoot that form the arch of the foot for shock absorption while walking or running. The forefoot is also made up of the toes or digits, formed by bones called phalanges - three in each toe, except the big toe, which has only two phalanges. The big toe has two additional tiny round sesamoid bones in the ball of the foot, which helps in upward and downward movements of the toe.
Ankle and Foot Joints
There are 33 joints in the ankle and foot. They include:
- Hinge joints in the ankle, which allow flexion (bending) and extension
- Gliding joints found in the hindfoot, which allow gliding movements
- Condyloid joints found in the forefoot and toes, which allow the flexion (bending) and extension, adduction, and abduction (sideward movement).
The joints of the foot and ankle provide stability and support the weight of your body, helping you to walk or run, and adapt to uneven grounds.
Soft Tissues of the Ankle and Foot
Our feet and ankle bones are held in place and supported by various soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and bursae.
The joint surface of all the bones of the ankle and foot are lined by a thin, tough, flexible, and slippery surface called the articular cartilage, which acts as a shock absorber and cushion to reduce friction between the bones. The cartilage is lubricated by synovial fluid, which further enables smooth movement of the bones.
Ligaments are tough rope-like tissue that connect bones to other bones, and hold them in place, providing stability to the joints. The plantar fascia is the largest ligament in the foot, originating from the heel bone to the forefoot, it extends along the lower side of the foot and is involved in maintaining the arch of the foot. The plantar fascia ligament stretches and contracts to provide balance and strength to the foot. Lateral ligaments on the outside of the foot and medial ligaments on the inside of the foot provide stability and allow up and down movement of the foot.
The foot is made up of 20 muscles that help in movement. The main muscles include:
- Anterior tibial muscle, which allows up and down movement of the foot
- Posterior tibial muscle, which supports the arch
- Peroneal tibial muscle, which controls movement on the outside of the ankle
- Extensors, which enable the ankle to raise the toes just before stepping forward
- Flexors, which stabilize the toes against the floor
- Smaller muscles that help the toes to lift and curl
Tendons are soft tissues that connect muscles to bones. The largest and strongest tendon in the foot is the Achilles tendon, present at the back of the lower leg around the heel bone. Other tendons include peroneal and anterior and posterior tibialis.
Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that decrease friction between tendons and bone or skin. They contain special cells called synovial cells that secrete a lubricating fluid.