Accessibility Tools


  • Spondylodiscitis


    Spondylodiscitis is an infection of the intervertebral discs (between the vertebrae) along with the vertebrae...

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  • Herniated Disc (Lumbar)

    Herniated Disc (Lumbar)

    Herniated disc is a condition in which the outer fibers (annulus) of the intervertebral disc are damaged...

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  • Arm Pain of Spinal Origin

    Arm Pain of Spinal Origin

    Arm pain of spinal origin can be described as discomfort or pain felt anywhere in the arm including the wrist, elbow, or shoulder...

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  • Skeletal Dysplasia

    Skeletal Dysplasia

    Skeletal dysplasia, also called osteochondrodysplasia, is the term used for growth or developmental disorders of the bone and cartilage.

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  • Pseudarthrosis/Nonunion


    Pseudarthrosis is an unhealed broken bone, also known as nonunion.

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  • Cervicogenic Headache

    Cervicogenic Headache

    Cervicogenic headaches involve pain in one or both sides of your head that radiates from your neck to the front of the head.

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  • Spinal Compression Fractures

    Spinal Compression Fractures

    A compression fracture of the vertebra occurs when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) collapse.

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  • Spinal Disorders

    Spinal Disorders

    Degenerative disc disease refers to the gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs...

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  • Fracture of the Thoracic & Lumbar Spine

    Fracture of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

    The backbone is made of small bones arranged from the neck down to the buttocks, one above the other.

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  • Spinal Fractures

    Spinal Fractures

    Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed.

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  • Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

    Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition that commonly affects the spine.

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  • Spinal Injuries at Work

    Spinal Injuries at Work

    Workplace injuries often occur because of high-risk jobs, lack of or scarcity in safety devices, lack of training, and higher numbers of manual workers.

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  • Lumbar Radiculopathy

    Lumbar Radiculopathy

    Back pain is a common condition affecting approximately 80% of the population at some point in their lives.

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  • Spinal Instability

    Spinal Instability

    Spinal instability refers to the condition of failure of the spinal column to maintain its normal structure.

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  • Lumbar Herniated Disc

    Lumbar Herniated Disc

    A herniated disc is a condition in which the outer fibers (annulus) of the intervertebral disc are damaged...

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  • Lumbar Stenosis

    Lumbar Stenosis

    Lumbar stenosis is the compression of spinal nerves caused by the narrowing of the spinal canal.

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  • Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of lower back pain.

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  • Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common cause of lower back pain and leg pain (sciatica).

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  • Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures.

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  • Cervical Spondylosis

    Cervical Spondylosis

    Cervical spondylosis, also called arthritis of the neck, is an age-related medical condition characterized...

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  • Back Pain

    Back Pain

    Back pain or backache is the pain felt in the back that may originate from damage to the muscles...

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  • Spine Deformities

    Spine Deformities

    It is a condition where the spine or backbone is curved sideways instead of appearing in a straight line.

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  • Chiari Malformation

    Chiari Malformation

    Chiari Malformation (CM) is a condition in which the brain tissue extends into your spinal canal.

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  • Facet Joint Arthritis

    Facet Joint Arthritis

    Facet joints, also called zygapophyseal joints, are synovial joints located at the back of your spine, connecting the vertebrae together.

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  • Spinal Tumors

    Spinal Tumors

    A spine tumor is the abnormal growth of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord.

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  • Spine Injuries in Athletes

    Spine Injuries in Athletes

    Spine injuries in athletes are defined as damage sustained by the spine as a result of physical trauma or overuse in people who are actively involved in sports.

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  • Cauda Equina Syndrome

    Cauda Equina Syndrome

    What Cauda equina syndrome is an emergency condition characterized by persistent severe lower...

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  • Kyphosis


    Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback.

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  • Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction or sacroiliac joint pain is one of the common causes of low back pain.

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  • Chordoma


    Chordoma is a rare, slow-growing malignant tumor that develops in the spine and skull bones.

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  • Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    A traumatic spinal cord injury is an injury from sudden physical trauma that results in a fracture, dislocation...

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  • Spondyloarthropathies


    Spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the spine and joints.

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  • Lordosis


    Lordosis may develop during childhood as a benign condition or later in life because of poor posture, osteoporosis, obesity...

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  • Proximal Junctional Kyphosis

    Proximal Junctional Kyphosis

    Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common complication following adult spinal deformity surgery or a long spinal fusion.

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  • Neck & Back Injuries

    Neck and Back Injuries

    Neck and back injuries usually result from damage to the surrounding structures such as the muscles...

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  • Pathological Fractures of the Spine

    Pathological Fractures of the Spine

    Pathological fractures are broken bones in an area already weakened by another disease, not by an injury.

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  • Cervical Deformities

    Cervical Deformities

    Cervical deformity can also result in breathing and swallowing difficulty and can severely disturb...

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  • Lumbar Facet Joint Arthropathy

    Lumbar Facet Joint Arthropathy

    Lumbar facet joint arthropathy occurs when the facet joints degenerate or wear out over time due to aging or arthritis.

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  • Psoas Abscess

    Psoas Abscess

    A psoas abscess can be categorized as primary or secondary based on the presence or absence of underlying disease.

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  • Spinal Infection

    Spinal Infection

    A spinal infection is described as an infection of the spine. It can occur in various locations of the spine i.e., intervertebral disc space, vertebral column, spinal canal, and nearby soft tissues....

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  • Spine Trauma

    Spine Trauma

    Spine trauma is defined as an injury or damage to any region of the spine.

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  • Peripheral Nerve Compression

    Peripheral Nerve Compression

    Peripheral nerve compression occurs when a nerve is compacted or squeezed through repetitive activities...

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  • Poor Balance

    Poor Balance

    Poor balance can be defined as a sense of unsteadiness on your feet due to dizzy spells or lightheadedness...

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  • Difficulty Walking

    Difficulty Walking

    Difficulty walking is defined as inability to walk properly due to abnormal and uncontrollable walking patterns.

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  • Sagittal Imbalance

    Sagittal Imbalance

    Certain medical conditions, however, affect the curvature of the spine so that the curves become too flat or too pronounced.

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  • Discitis


    Discitis, also called discitis, is inflammation between the spaces of the intervertebral discs in the spine.

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  • Cervical Fracture

    Cervical Fracture

    Cervical fractures are common in motor vehicle accidents, sports activities and falls.

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  • Cervical Herniated Disc

    Cervical Herniated Disc

    Herniation of a disc is an anomalous spine condition characterized by the bulging of the...

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  • Cervical Stenosis

    Cervical Stenosis

    Cervical stenosis develops after age 50 because of aging and spinal wear and tear.

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  • Spine Bone Spurs

    Spine Bone Spurs

    Spine bone spurs, also called osteophytes, are bony projections that develop in the spine’s facet joints where...

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  • Cervical Disc Protrusion

    Cervical Disc Protrusion

    Cervical disc protrusion, commonly known as a disc bulge, occurs when the spinal discs and associated ligaments...

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  • Whiplash


    Whiplash is a soft tissue injury to the neck, usually caused by a sudden forceful jerk commonly occurring...

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  • Cervical Degenerative Disorder

    Cervical Degenerative Disorder

    Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer as it is not a disease but a condition that affects the strength...

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  • Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

    Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

    Adult degenerative scoliosis is characterized by side to side or lateral bending of the spine in adults.

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  • Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine...

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  • Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    Neuromuscular scoliosis is a common type of scoliosis caused due to neuromuscular disorders...

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  • Spine Arthritis

    Spine Arthritis

    Spine arthritis is a condition characterized by the inflammation, degeneration, or wearing out of cartilage in the joints of the spine.

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  • Low Back Pain

    Low Back Pain

    Low back pain is often a common symptom of many disease conditions and the back pain may range...

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  • Cervical Disc Herniation

    Cervical Disc Herniation

    Cervical disc herniation can arise due to aberrations of the intervertebral disc such as bulging, rupture...

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  • Mid-back Pain

    Mid-back Pain

    Mid-back pain is also called as thoracic pain or upper back pain.

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  • Metastatic Tumours

    Metastatic Tumours

    A tumor (lump or mass) in your spine is an abnormal growth of tissue within or around your spinal column or spinal cord.

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  • Osteoporotic Fractures

    Osteoporotic Fractures

    Osteoporosis is a bone disorder where your bones become fragile and weak causing them to break easily.

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  • Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a type of scoliosis that occurs in children between 10 and 16 years of age.

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  • Kyphosis in Children

    Kyphosis in Children

    Kyphosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a “hunchback”.

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  • Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease

    Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease

    Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer, as it is not a disease as such but a condition...

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  • Neck Strains & Sprains

    Neck Strains and Sprains

    Motor vehicle accidents usually result in severe sprains and strains called whiplash injuries due to sudden unexpected movement of the neck.

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  • Osteoporosis of the Spine

    Osteoporosis of the Spine

    Osteoporosis is called a "silent disease," as a majority of the patients may be unaware of their condition until they develop a bone fracture.

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  • Piriformis Syndrome

    Piriformis Syndrome

    Piriformis Syndrome is an uncommon, rare neuromuscular condition caused by the compression of the...

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  • Disc Changes

    Disc changes

    The cartilaginous disc is made up of an outer fibrous layer called the annulus fibrosus...

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